Madhya Pradesh GK

Chapter 1 Ancient History

▸ The history of Madhya Pradesh goes back to the time of Stone Ages. There are many important stone age sites found in Madhya Pradesh viz. Eran, Jatkara, Jabalpur, Damoh, Nandgaon, Hata, Hoshangabad, etc. From the various caves found here, a continuous history of man from Paleolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic to Chalcolithic ages are proved.
▸ After the pre historic period, ancient history of Madhya Pradesh consists of Megalithic age, Iron age, Vedic age, Epic age. After Epic age, Mahajanapadas age started. Among 16 Mahajanapadas, Chedi (Bundelkhand) and Avanti (Ujjain) belong to Madhya Pradesh. After this age almost, all ancient dynasties ruled Madhya Pradesh.
▸ This included Nanda dynasty, Mauryan dynasty, Shunga dynasty, Satvahana dynasty, Indo-Greek rule, Kushana dynasty, Gupta dynasty, Vakataka dynasty, Aulikara dynasty, Parivrajak dynasty, Pushyabhuti dynasty, Shail dynasty, Rashtrakuta dynasty, Gurjara-Pratihara dynasty, Paramara dynasty, Chandela dynasty, Kalachuri dynasty and Guhila dynasty.
▸ Besides these, there were some local dynasties which also ruled the ancient period of Madhya Pradesh. These local dynasties were Karush dynasty, Chandra Vansh dynasty, Kshaharatas dynasty, Kardamaka dynasty, Naga dynasty, Bodhi dynasty and Magh dynasty. Ancient history of Madhya Pradesh is very rich and significant which portrays the journey of the state from the past to the present.

Pre History of Madhya Pradesh

Pre history is the time when human life is based on stone tools for their survival. The pre history age is divided into the Stone Age and Chalcolithic Age. These are discussed below:

Stone Age

The important Stone age sites are Eran, Garhi-Morela, Kundam, Jatkara, Bhulue, Busiga, Munai, Artuiji, Jabalpur, Damoh, Nandgaon, Hata and Hoshangabad. This age is further divided into the following:
Paleolithic Age
▸ It was age of hunters and food gatherers. The earliest part of the stone age was the paleolithic age (old stone) when mankind first began to use stone to create tools and weapons.
▸ During this period humans were hunter gatherers. Important Paleolithic sites from Madhya Pradesh are Narmada valley, Betwa, Hathnora, Bhimbetka, Adamgarh and Jogdaha.
▸ Hand axe made of quartzite was discovered from Betwa and Narmada valley. There are few Paleolithic sites which have yielded human remains of that period, include Hathnora and Bhimbetka. Among them skull found in Hathnora is considered as the oldest.
The Mesolithic Age
▸ In this age stone tools made of Jasper, Quartz, etc were found.
▸ The Mesolithic tools were smaller in size and better in finishing than Paleolithic age and are called Microliths.
▸ The most important site of Mesolithic age in Madhya Pradesh are Adamgarh, Chaturbhujnath Nala and Bhimbetka.
▸ Adamgarh hills is located in Hoshangabad of Madhya Pradesh. It is exactly a Mesolithic site located at the cost of Narmada river.
▸ In some caves rock paintings of hunting, dancing and domestic activities were found in Adamgarh.
▸ They are famous for pre historic rock shelters.
▸ Stone age artefacts, lower Paleolithic and Mesolithic implements have been excavated here.
Bhimbetka Rock Shelters
The Bhimbetka rock shelters are an archaeological site that covers the pre historic, Paleolithic and Mesolithic period, as well as historic period. It exhibits earliest traces of human life on the Indian Sub-continent. It is located in Raisen district in Madhya Pradesh. It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site recognised in 2003. It consists of seven hills and over 750 rock shelters. Some of the Bhimbetka rock shelters feature pre historic cave paintings and the earliest are about 30,000 years old. Important characteristics of Bhimbetka rock shelters are discussed below:
▸ These caves provide continuous history of man from Paleolithic age to historical period.
▸ The paintings found in these caves are carved with human and animal figures, human activities, hunting, gathering, dancing, geometric designs and symbols, house and elephant riders, animal fighting, etc.
▸ The colours used in these paintings are vegetable colours which survived thousands of years of adverse weather conditions.
▸ Brushes used in these paintings were made of plant fibre.
▸ In Paleolithic paintings of these caves, dancing and hunting scenes and animals like tiger, elephant, bison, rhino, etc are shown.
▸ The Mesolithic paintings of these caves are smaller in size. These paintings depicts hunting scenes, family life, hand prints and finger prints.
▸ The Chalcolithic paintings of these caves depicts the use of different colours. White colour was extracted from limestone, red from haematite rock called geru and green from chalcedony stone.
▸ All these paintings of Bhimbetka caves helps to understand the early human beings, their lifestyle, their daily activities and their thinking.
The Neolithic Age
▸ This age is mainly characterised by the development of settled agriculture and the use of tools and weapons made of polished stones.
▸ The people used Microlithic blades in addition to tools made of polished stones with very sharp edge like axe, saws, quern made of Jasper, etc. The people of Neolithic age lived in rectangular or circular houses which were made of mud and reed. Major Neolithic site from Madhya Pradesh is Kunjun in the Sidhi district.
Other Archaeological Places of Pre Historic Period Tripuri ( Jabalpur) Sources of later Vedic Age and Mauryan era have been found here.
Kalasp (Ujjain) Sources found here gave information about the existence of civilisation about 3000 years ago.
Mandsaur Sources of Emperor Yashovarman of Malwa have been found.
Pit Nagar (Khargone) Sources of Buddha era have been found of about 2500 years old.
Khalaghat (Dhar) Sources found here shows the presence of followers of Lord Buddha. These are about 2000 years old.
Ninnaur Village (Sehore) Sources of Gupta era have been found here.
Tyothar or Bharhut Sources of urban civilisation have been found here dated 3rd-4th Century BC.

Chalcolithic Culture (Bronze Age)

This period was contemporary to the times of Harappa and Mohenjodaro civilisations of Indus valley. In and around Malwa, various Chalcolithic sites were excavated which are as follows: Kaytha (Ujjain) It is a village in Ujjain district. Copper axe or copper claver and some animal structures made of terracotta were found from this site. This region flourished as a good agro based economy during Gupta period. The great astrologer, Varahamihira was born in Kaytha.
Eran (Sagar) The ancient name of Eran was Arikin. The time period of this town is assumed to be about 2000-700 BC. It was also flourished under Gupta period.
Copper axe, round shaped gold material, red and black wares, painted wares, etc were discovered from this site.
Navadatoli (Khargone-Nimar) Wooden cart, red and black wares, cultivation of wheat, brick stone (chulha), cottages having round and rectangular shape, copper and stone tools, etc have been found from this site.
Avara (Mandsaur) It reflected the various phases of civilisation from Chalcolithic to Gupta period. Painted red-black and grey-white wares were found from this site.
Dangwada (Ujjain) This site was excavated at a distance of 32 km from Ujjain.
Nagda (Ujjain) It is situated at the coast of Chambal river. Small sized stone tools and grey potteries were found from this site.
Khedinama (Hoshangabad) This site was as old as 1500 BC where evidences of Chalcolithic age were collected.
Azad Nagar Musakhedi (Indore) It is a Chalcolithic site located in Indore.
Rulghat (Dhar) Evidences of Bronze age have been found here.

Archaeologists related to Excavation in Madhya Prades h

Site Archaeologist
Narmada valley Sukhilya, Supekar, RB Joshi, BB Lal, Petersen, Khatri
Son valley Nisar Ahmad
Rewa – Satna GR Sharma
Chambal valley and Chalcolithic sites Vakankar

Ancient History of Madhya Pradesh

Ancient period in Madhya Pradesh can be divided in the following periods.
Megalithic Age (1700-1000 BC)
▸ The effects of Megalithic age of Southern India could be seen in the state of Madhya Pradesh from 1700-1000 BC.
▸ From Seoni and Rewa district of Madhya Pradesh big Megalithic burial sites were recovered.
Vedic Age (1500-600 BC)
▸ This period approximately starts from 1500 BC and continues till 600 BC. The Aryans, during later Vedic period, crossed Vindhyachal region to settle in Madhya Pradesh.
▸ The Nishad caste which is mentioned in Aitareya Brahmana, were basically residents of Madhya Pradesh forest region.
Iron Age (1200-1000 BC)
▸ The painted greyware pottery of iron age were found in various regions of Madhya Pradesh, e.g., Sheopur, Gwalior, Morena and Bhind. Iron age begins in near about 1000 BC.
Epic Age (1000-600 BC)
▸ During Ramayana epic age, Madhya Pradesh was covered with dense forest region of Mahakantara and Dandakaranya (now Chhattisgarh).
▸ According to Anushruti literature, Lord Rama spent most of the period of his exile in this region only.
▸ During the battle of Mahabharat, various regions of Madhya Pradesh took part.
▸ Vatsa, Chedi, Karush and Dasharna took part from Pandavas side and Mahishmati, Avanti, Bhoj and Vidarbha took part from Kauravas side.

Mahajanapada Period (800-600 BC)

▸ Malwa established one of the first powerful empires in the region Avanti. Avanti became a key region for the establishment of Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism.
Avanti, with its capital at Ujjain, comprised the major parts of Western Malwa.
▸ Besides Ujjain, Mahishmati was another important town of Western Malwa.
▸ Vidisha, on the bank of river Betwa was the biggest town of Eastern Malwa with Eran as its military headquarters.
The major Mahajanapadao in Madhya Pradesh were as follows:
Avanti Mahajanapada
▸ This region is related to present day Malwa region. The Janapada was divided into two parts by the Vindhyas, the Northern part (Uttar Avanti) had its capital at Ujjayani and the Southern part (Dakshin Avanti) had its centre at Mahishmati.
▸ Chanda Pradyota was the famous king of Avanti.
▸ According to puranic accounts, the Haihayas, were the earliest rulers of Avanti, who captured the region from the Nagas.
▸ The Haihayas were a confederation of five clans the Vitihotras, the Bhojas, Avantis, Tundikeras and Sharyatas.
▸ Avanti was a part of the Magadhan empire during the rule of Shishunaga and the Nanda dynasties.
▸ During the Maurya dynasty rule, Avanti became the Avantiratha or the Western province of the empire, with its capital at Ujjayani.
▸ The Junagarh rock inscription of Rudradaman I mentions Pushya Gupta as the Governor of the Western province during the reign of Chandragupta Maurya.
Chedi Mahajanapada
▸ Chedi was an ancient Indian kingdom which fell roughly in the Bundelkhand division of Madhya Pradesh regions to the South of river Yamuna along the river Ken. Its capital city was called Suktimati.
▸ According to the Mahabharata, the Chedi kingdom was ruled by Shishupala.
Vatsa Mahajanapada
▸ Vatsa was one of the sixteen Mahajanapadas of Uttarapatha mentioned in Anguttara Nikaya.
▸ Vatsa corresponded with the territory of modern Allahabad and parts of Madhya Pradesh. It had a monarchical form of government with its capital at Kaushambi.
▸ Udayana was the ruler of Vatsa in the 6th-5th century BC, the time of the Buddha.

New Names of Ancient Mahajanapada s

Ancient Mahajanapada New Name
Avanti (Avantika) Ujjain
Vatsa Gwalior
Chedi Khajuraho
Dasharna Vidisha
Anup Nimar (Khandwa)
Kundalpur Damoh
Nalpur Narwar (Shivpuri)

Ancient Dynasties of Madhya Pradesh

Nanda dynasty, Mauryan dynasty, Shunga dynasty, Satavahana dynasty, Kushana dynasty, Vakatakas dynasty, Gupta dynasty, etc are some ancient dynasties Madhya Pradesh. These are discussed below:
Nand a Dynasty (343-321 BC)
▸ Mahapadma Nanda was the famous ruler of Nanda dynasty. He merged Chedi Janpada to Magadha, in order to extend his dominions. From Barwani, various coins of Nanda dynasty are found.
Mauryan Dynasty (322-185 BC)
▸ During the Mauryan period almost the entire Madhya Pradesh region was included in the Mauryan empire.
▸ Sources of rule of Mauryan dynasty are found in Madhya Pradesh.
▸ Asoka before becoming the ruler of Mauryan dynasty was the Governor of Ujjain.
Asoka married to Mahadevi, the princess of Vidisha district.
▸ Asoka set up a pillar inscription at Sanchi to promote Buddhism.
▸ Asoka also set up several Stupas like Sanchi, Vidisha, Bhojpur, Bharhut, etc. In these, Sanchi Stupa is the most magnificient.
▸ Four Asokan edicts are found from Madhya Pradesh i.e. Rupnath (Jabalpur) Gurjara (Datia), Saro-Maro (Shahdol) and Panguraria (Sehore).
▸ The administration of Mauryan dynasty extended from South to the Shravasti in the North.
▸ Mahishmati, Ujjain and Vidisha districts were included in its administration.
▸ Small inscriptions have been found from Gurjara region in Datia district of Madhya Pradesh which have name of Asoka carved on them.
▸ Inscriptions have also been found from Kasrawad (South Nimar), Karila (Jabalpur), Khakhai (Raisen), Bhanyapura (Sehore), etc.
▸ During later Mauryan period, some cities were famous commercially like Tripuri (Jabalpur), Eran (Sagar), Mahishmati (Maheshwar), Besnagar (Vidisha), Avanti (Ujjain), Padmabati (Gwalior) and Bhagil.
▸ During later Mauryan period, Avanti was regarded as the city of knowledge.
Sanchi Stupa
It is located 5 km from Bhopal. It is a World Heritage site. There are three Sanchi Stupas. The first stupa has relics of the Buddha. This stupa was a small brick structure covered with stone. A stone wall and gateways were built around it. There are four gateways which are beautifully decorated. e.g., the image of Shalabhanjika (lady holding the branch of a tree) is remarkable. The second stupa has relics of ten arhats and the third stupa has relics of Buddhist monks i.e. Sariputta and Mahamoghlayana. The early phase of Buddhism and later scenes of Jatakas were also depicted by these stupas. Jatakas are the events from the life of Buddha. Some main events were Buddha’s renunciation, enlightenment, Dhammachakra Pravartan and Mahaparinirvana (death).
Shunga Dynasty (187-75 BC)
▸ The Shunga dynasty covered area of Magadha. This dynasty was founded by Pushyamitra Shunga, after the fall of the Mauryan Empire in around 185 BC. Its capital was Patliputra.
▸ Bhagabhadra, the Emperor of Shunga dynasty established his court at Besnagar (modern Vidisha) in Eastern Malwa.
▸ Pushyamitra Shunga destructed the Sanchi Stupa during his rule.
▸ Agnimitra, son of Pushyamitra Shunga, was appointed as Governor of Vidisha.
▸ Kalidas started his career from the Court of Agnimitra, where he wrote his first little Malavikagnimitram.
▸ An Indo-Greek king Antialcidas sent his agent, Heliodorus to the court of Agnimitra.
▸ Heliodorus built Garuda pillar in Vidisha district during the rule of Bhagabhadra, fifth ruler of Shunga dynasty.
▸ Sources have been found of Stupa built during Shunga dynasty in Bharhut.
Indo-Greek Rule (200-50 BC)
▸ It was a Hellenistic kingdom covering various parts of Afghanistan and the North-West regions of Indian subcontinent (including North-Western India).
▸ The kingdom was founded by Graeco–Bactrian King Demetrius, who invaded the subcontinent early in 2nd century BC.
▸ The most famous Indo-Greek ruler was Menander. The successor of Demetrius, Milinda (Menander) attacked on Madhya Pradesh as his coins in Balaghat district reflects this fact.
Satavahana Dynasty (50 BC-300 AD)
▸ The Satavahanas also known as Andhras in Puranas were from Deccan region.
▸ The dynasty had different capital cities at different times, including Pratishthana (Paithan) and Amravati (Dharanikota).
▸ The Satavahana king Satakarni conquered the Eastern Malwa as inscribed on pillar inscription at Sanchi.
▸ The greatest Satavahana king Gautamiputra Satakarni defeated Shaka ruler of Ujjaini. Later on he issued various coins in Ujjain, Tewar, Tripuri, etc named as Satakarni.
▸ Some coins of Satavahana king ‘Yajna Shree Satakarni’ also discovered from some cities in Dewas and Vidisha.
▸ Some Nasik inscriptions gave information that the son of Satakarni, Vashishtiputra was the ruler of Anup (area of Narmada valley), East Malwa and Avanti region.
Kushana Dynasty (1st Century-375 AD)
▸ The Kushanas basically originated from Western part of China and entered India displacing Shakas. They were partially successful against Shakas but they completely removed the Indo-Greeks from India.
▸ In Madhya Pradesh, Kushana’s presence can be observed in terms of continuous struggle against Shakas (Ujjain) or Bhurshiv (Padmabati).
▸ Coins of Kushana ruler, Vima Kadphises have been found from Vidisha district.
▸ Coins of Kanishka and Huvishka were discovered from Shahdol and Harda.
▸ Kushana king Vasudeva’s coins were discovered from Tewar (Jabalpur).
▸ During the Kushana rule of Vasishka, Madhukar built a large idol of Lord Buddha.
▸ From Bhedaghat (Jabalpur), two inscriptions of Buddha were recovered contemporary to Kushanas.
Malwa Tribe and Malwa
▸ The Malwa tribe migrated to Malwa during 200-300 AD and founded their rule over the region. During their reign, this region was named as Malwa.
▸ The coins found in Malwa region gave information about their republic type of governance.
Vakataka Dynasty (150-450 AD)
▸ The Vakataka dynasty originated from Deccan. The state extended from Southern edges of Malwa and Gujarat in the North to Tungabhadra river in the South.
▸ They were the most important successors of Satvahanas in Deccan and contemporary with Gupta in the North.
▸ The Vakataka dynasty was founded by Vindhyashakti in Vidisha district. Later on Vakatakas shifted to the Southern part of Narmada river, with capital at Vatsagulma.
▸ The rock cut Buddhist Viharas and Chaityas of Ajanta caves (a UNESCO World Heritage Site) were built under the patronage of Vakataka emperor, Harisena.
▸ The sources of the rule of Vakataka dynasty have been found from Nachna Kuthara (Satna) and Panna district.
▸ Pravarasena I had marital relation with Naga dynasty of Gwalior.
▸ He was the first Vakataka ruler, who called himself Samrat and conducted wars with the Naga kings.
Gupta Dynasty (319-550 AD)
The Gupta empire existed from mid 3rd century AD to 590 AD. The ruling dynasty of the empire was founded by King Sri Gupta. The most notable rulers of the dynasty were Chandragupta I, Samudragupta and Chandragupta II. The Gupta rulers who had connections with Madhya Pradesh were Samudragupta, Bhangupta, Chandragupta II and Skandagupta. The famous rulers of Gupta dynasty were as follows
▸ According to Eran (Sagar district) inscription, the city Eran was ruled by Samudragupta.
▸ According to Prayag inscription (composed by Harisena), Samudragupta on his expedition towards South, passed through dense forests of Madhya Pradesh and then conquered some rulers ruling inside the forest.
▸ Some coins were discovered from Vidisha district bearing the name Kanch (other name of Samudragupta).
Chandragupta II Vikramaditya
▸ He was the greatest Gupta king who assumed to be famous and popular Ujjaini king Vikramaditya.
▸ He uprooted Shakas from Ujjain completely and acquired the title as ‘Shakari’ (one who hunted Shaka). He was also known as Devraj.
▸ Chandragupta announced the Ujjain as capital for Gupta empire. He seated in Ujjain with his Navratna (Nine Eminent scholars of different fields). These nine scholars were Kalidas, Vetala Bhatta, Varahamihira, Dhanvantari, Amarasimha, Vararuchi, Ghatakarapara, Kshapanaka and Shanku. This was conferred from the three inscriptions found in Vidisha district.
▸ According to Sanchi inscription, Chandragupta haulted at Sachi with his army chief on the way to a military expedition against Shakas.
▸ According to Devichandraguptam, a text compiled by Vishakahadatta, Ramagupta was defeated by Shaka king. Later, the Shaka king was defeated by Chandragupta II.
▸ Chandragupta II also killed his brother Ramagupta and became the king of Gupta dynasty. Fa-Hien, the Chinese Buddhist traveller visited Malwa during his reign.
▸ He was also known as Shakraditya. He was the son of Chandragupta II.
▸ According to Mandsaur inscription, Kumaragupta served as local Governor.
▸ He was a great Gupta king, who was also associated with Madhya Pradesh.
▸ From Indore, a copper inscription was recovered depicting the fact that Skandagupta made grant-in-aid to a guild of oil manufacturers in Madhya Pradesh.
▸ The Eran inscription gave information about Bhanugupta.
▸ One of his military man was killed in military expedition in Madhya Pradesh.
Huns Attack during Gupta Period
During Gupta period, a dangerous tribe of China, Huns attacked Madhya Pradesh but was defeated by Skandagupta. They again attacked under the leadership of Toramana. The Varah Idol inscription of Sagar district depicts the presence of Toramana in Madhya Pradesh. The son of Toramana, Mihirkula, also attacked Malwa. The Gwalior inscription depicts the long presence of Mihirkula in Madhya Pradesh.
Aulikara Dynasty (4th-6th Century AD)
This dynasty was founded by Jayavarman in Mandsaur. One of the king of Aulikara dynasty, Bandhuvarman constructed Sun temple, according to Dashpur (Mandsaur) inscription.
Parivrajak Dynasty (5th-6th Century AD)
▸ This dynasty was settled in Panna and extended its territory to almost whole Bundelkhand.
▸ Devadhya was the first king of this dynasty. Their capital was located in Uchakalp (Unchhara) in Satna district.
Pushyabhuti Dynasty (6th-7th Century AD)
▸ The Pushyabhuti dynasty or Vardhana dynasty ruled parts of Northern India. The dynasty reached its zenith under last ruler Harshavardhan. Harshavardhan killed Malwa king ‘Devgupta’, taking revenge of his brother’s assassination.
▸ During this time, he also captured some part of Malwa region.
▸ Harshavardhan was defeated by Pulkeshi-II at the Southern side of Narmada according to Alhole inscription and Chinese traveller Hiuen Tsang’s illustrations.
Shail Dynasty (8th-9th Century AD)
▸ This dynasty was functional in Mahakoshal region of Madhya Pradesh.
▸ Shreevardhan, was the founder of this dynasty. The Ragholi copper inscription obtained from Balaghat provides information about this dynasty.
Rashtrakuta Dynasty (753 to 983 AD)
▸ This dynasty was founded by Dantidurga in Manyakheta (Malkhed in Maharashtra).
▸ The Rashtrakuta dynasty ruled over large part of Indian subcontinent including Madhya Pradesh. The earliest known Rashtrakuta inscription is a 7th century copper plate giving detail of their rule from Manapura, a city in Central or West India.
▸ The Rashtrakutas frequently entered into Madhya Pradesh to check the power of Palas and Pratiharas. Following this movement, they settled their branch in Betul territory.
▸ Govind III was a Rashtrakuta ruler who defeated Nagabhatt and organised a court ceremony in Ujjain.
Gurjara- Pratihara Dynasty (Mid-8th to 11th Century)
▸ Harichandra was the founder of this dynasty. Gurjara-Pratihara basically originated from Medata-Jodhpur (Rajasthan) and later they migrated to Ujjain.
▸ Nagabhatt was the first ruler of Ujjaini who defended his rule by successfully defeating Arabs.
▸ According to an Arabian traveller, Suleman, Mihira Bhoj was the strongest ruler of North India. Gwalior and Khala inscriptions gave information about Mihira Bhoj.
Guhila Dynasty (8th to 10th Century AD)
▸ The sources of the rule of Guhila dynasty have been found from Jiran (Mandsaur).
Vigrahapala was the first ruler of this dynasty.
Paramar Dynasty (9th to 14 Century AD)
▸ This dynasty was founded by Upendra Krishna Raja in Dharanagar (Dhar). Siyaka (Shree Harsh) was the first independent ruler of this dynasty.
▸ Vakpati Munja of this dynasty constructed Munja Sagar in Dhar.
▸ Raja Bhoj was the famous ruler of this dynasty. He constructed Bhoj Tal in Bhopal, a temple of Lord Shiva in Bhojpur and a temple of Maa Saraswati in Dhar.
Chandela Dynasty (9th to 13th Century AD)
▸ The Chandelas initially ruled as feudatories of the Gurjara-Pratiharas of Kannauj.
Nannuka founded the Chandela dynasty in Bundelkhand with capital at Mahoba.
Bundelkhand was known at that time as Jejakabhukti.
▸ During the rule of Dhangdev, various territories were freed from the seize of Pratiharas. Under his rule famous temples at Khajuraho were constructed.
▸ Vidyadhar, was the greatest among all Chandelas. He fought many battles and successfully defended his state against Mahmud of Ghazni. He killed Pratihara ruler ‘Rajyapal’.
▸ The Kandariya Mahadeva temple was constructed under his reign.
▸ The last ruler of Chandela dynasty, Paramardi Dev was defeated by Qutb-ud-din Aibak, who later merged Mahoba in his kingdom.
Kalachuri Dynasty (10th to 12th Century AD)
▸ This dynasty was founded by Vam Devraj. In Madhya Pradesh, Kalachuri dynasty have two branches i.e. Mahishmati (Maheshwar) and Tripuri.
▸ In Tripuri (now Tewar in Jabalpur) Kalachuri dynasty was founded by Kokalla I.
▸ The first independent ruler of this dynasty was Krishnaraja.
▸ After Krishnaraja, Shankaragana and Buddharaja became the rulers of this dynasty.
Raja Mangalesh defeated Buddharaja and captured Mahishmati from him.

Local Dynasties of Madhya Pradesh

Karush dynasty, Kshaharatas dynasty, Kardamaka dynasty, Naga dynasty, Magh dynasty, Bodhi dynasty and Chandra Vansh dynasty are local dynasties in Madhya Pradesh. These are discussed below:
Karush Dynasty
▸ According to Anushruti literature, the last remaining man on Earth, Manu Vaivasvata had ten sons. Out of them Karush established Karush dynasty.
▸ The rulers of this dynasty, established their control over present day Baghelkhand region of Madhya Pradesh near Rewa river.
Kshaharatas Dynasty (35-405 AD)
▸ Nahapana and Bhumak were two prominent rulers of Kshaharatas dynasty.
Nahapana had rivalry with Gautamiputra Satakarni.
▸ Various coins of Nahapana were recovered from region of Shivpuri and Jogalthambi.
Kardamaka Dynasty (1st to 4th Century AD)
▸ Indo-Scythians or popularly called Shakas established in India in post Mauryan period. The Shakas extended their supremacy over North-Western India, conquering the Indo-Greeks and other local kingdoms. They created Kshaharatas System of government.
▸ Out of all the Kshatrapa, the Ujjaini Kshatrapa was most important.
▸ The Ujjaini Kshatrapa was founded by Yashomitik or Chastan. This dynasty was also known as Kardamaka dynasty. The most popular ruler of this dynasty was Rudradaman. He was also a great Sanskrit scholar.
▸ Rudradaman was the first person who started the use of silver coins.
▸ According to Girnar inscription, Rudradaman ordered the reconstruction of Sudarshan lake.
▸ The last ruler of this dynasty and Ujjain was Rudrasena who was killed by Chandragupta Vikramaditya.
Naga Dynasty (3rd-mid-4th Century AD)
▸ This dynasty was founded by Vrishnath in present day region of Vidisha in 300 AD.
▸ Initially, Naga dynasty ruled over Mathura region of Uttar Pradesh. Ganpati Naga, the ruler of Naga dynasty fought against Samudragupta and lost his empire to Samudragupta.
Magh Dynasty (200 AD)
▸ This dynasty basically ruled over Baghelkhand region of Madhya Pradesh.
▸ Some of the prominent rulers of Magh dynasty are Bhimsena, Bhadramagh and Shivmagh.
Bodhi Dynasty (300-400 AD)
▸ The Bodhivansh ruled over Tripuri region of Jabalpur in Madhya Pradesh.
▸ Four prominent rulers of Bodhi dynasty were Shree Bodhi, Vasu Bodhi, Chandra Bodhi and Shiv Bodhi.
Chandra Vansh Dynasty (900-1050 AD)
▸ The daughter of Manu, Ela was married to Som Chandra. On his name, the Chandra dynasty was established. It was also known as El dynasty. The Chandra dynasty controlled regions of Bundelkhand. Chandra has two sons, Aayu and Amavasu.

Modern Name of Ancient Cities

Ancient Name Modern Name Ancient Name Modern Name
Viratpuri Sohagpur Mahishmati Maheshwar
Indrapuri Indore Kuntalpur Kutwar
Ujjaini Ujjain Bhojtal Bhopal
Dharanagar Dhar Bhatha (Bharhut) Rewa
Anchhara Satna Kavya Sanchi


Dynasty Period
Nanda dynasty 343-321 BC
Mauryan dynasty 322-185 BC
Shunga dynasty 187-75 BC
Indo-Greek rule 200-50 BC
Satavahana dynasty 50 BC-300 AD
Kushana dynasty 1st century -375 AD
Vakataka dynasty 150-450 AD
Gupta dynasty 319-550 AD
Dynasty Period
Aulikara dynasty 4th-6th century AD
Parivrajak dynasty 5th-6th century AD
Pushyabhuti dynasty 6th-7th century AD
Shail dynasty 8th-9th century AD
Guhila dynasty 8th to 10th century AD
Rashtrakuta dynasty 753-983 AD
Gurjara-Pratihara dynasty Mid-9th- 11th century AD
Paramar dynasty 9th to 14th century AD
Chandela dynasty 9th to 13th century AD
Kalachuri dynasty 10th to 12th century AD
Local Dynasty
Kshaharatas dynasty 35-405 AD
Chandra Vansh dynasty 900-1050 AD
Kardamaka dynasty 1 st-4th century AD
Magh dyansty 200 AD
Naga dynasty 3rd-mid-4th century AD
Bodhi dynasty 300-400 AD

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